11. Suitable training programmes should also be
undertaken for mahouts, elephant owners and managers
to increase their professional skills and to sensitize them to
the requirements of humane and scientific methods of
handling elephants. Possibilities for setting up a training
institute for elephants, mahouts and trappers, one each in
the northeast and the south, should be explored.

12. Forest Departments in the elephant bearing states and
elsewhere should be encouraged to increase the use of
elephants in work related to forestry and wildlife. Tourism
corporations should also be encouraged to utilize
domesticated elephants wherever possible. The
Government of India could undertake a scheme for
supplying trained elephants for use in the National Parks
and Sanctuaries in the non-elephant bearing states.

13. The traditional elephant fair at Sonepur (Bihar) should
be patronized by Project Elephant and utilized as a forum
for promoting ideas and values about the conservation
and welfare of elephants. Similar elephant fairs may be
organized in other regions in India.

14. Realizing that the international trade in live specimens
of the Asian elephant is not detrimental to the survival of
the species (unlike the trade in ivory), the possibility of
relaxing some provisions of CITES to facilitate limited (i.e.
quota based) export of domesticated elephants should be
examined.

References

Anon. 1985. Recommendations of the Asian Elephant
Specialist Group at Bandipur Tiger Reserve, India, 5-9
November 1985.

Anon. 1993. Project Elephant. Ministry of Environment and
Forests, Government of India, New Delhi.

Anon. 1994. The Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 (as
amended up to 1991). Natraj Publishers, Dehradun.

Barua, Parbati & S. S. Bist. 1996. Cruelty to elephants - A
legal and practical view. Zoos' Print, Vol.XI, No.6.

Bist, S. S. 1996. Standards and norms for elephant owners
- Draft for comments. Zoos' Print, Vol. XI, No.6.

Bist, S.S. & Parbati Barua. 2000. Elephant laws in India.
(Under prep.).

Daniel, J.C. 1980. The status of Asian elephants in the
Indian sub-continent. IUCN/SSC Asian Elephant Specialist
Group, Bombay.

Daniel, J.C. 1998. The Asian elephant - A natural history.
Natraj Publishers, Dehradun.

Jackson, P.F., Ed. 1985. Elephants in Asia. AESG,
Bandipur, India.

Lahiri Choudhury, D.K. 1984. The plight of Indian
elephants. WWF Monthly Report, March: 63-65.

Lahiri Choudhury, D.K. 1989. The Indian elephant in a
changing world. In Carla M. Borde, ed. Contemporary
Indian tradition: Voices on culture, nature and the
challenges of change. edited by. Washington and London:
Smithsonian Institution Press.

Lair, Richard C. 1997. Gone astray. The care and
management of the Asian elephant in domesticity. FAO.
Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok,
Thailand.

Menon, Vivek; R. Sukumar &Ashok Kumar. 1997. A God in
distress: Threats of poaching and the ivory trade to the
Asian elephant in India. Asian Elephant Conservation
Centre, Bangalore.

Santiapillai, Charles & Peter Jackson. 1990. The Asian
elephant: An action plan for its conservation. IUCN, Gland.

Sukumar, R. 1994. Elephant Days and Nights. Oxford
University Press, Delhi.

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