Animals, which are having sharp olfactory sense, are
handled in the proper way.  Many professional hunters
know this and use this to approach the animal.  Even if
animal is in limited escape range, stimuli from sense of
smell should be avoided.

A wild animal always resents palpation (touch by human).  
Reaction of herd mates to a newly introduced animal to the
captive group may also be unpredictable.

In some animals like herbivores smell, like the dung of
same animal or species may have a quietening effect.

Physical confinement.

Confinement is more or less, subjective and will vary
considerably depending upon the species and the
situation.  Even a large fenced area may be confinement
to a free-living large adult wild animal.  A squeeze cage
with provision to trap is extremely useful device.  
Anatomical and physiological needs, of the animal should
be met.

A cat bag is useful for handling small carnivores or cubs.  
Wrapping with a thick towel is another method for small
animals.  Parrots and young carnivores are handled like
this.  Small birds, and mammals like rodents and reptiles
can the put into plastic tube.

Other physical tools of restrainment are ropes, snares and
nets.  A welder’s gloves may be used.  But a thick and
heavy glove reduces the perception of the handler, how
tightly he is grasping the animal or bird.  

An opaque shield, like a board of plywood can be used to
transfer a small animal from one cage to another has
swing doors.  The board can be inserted with the door
partially opened and open fully with the board covering the
entire opening.  Then bring the other cage and keep in
apposition with the cage having the animal.  Transfer the
animal to the 2nd cage.   Hold the board closing the 2nd
cage, i.e.the cage with the animal.  Gradually close the
swing door, slowly the drawing the board out and
simultaneously closing the cage with the animal i.e. the
second cage.  This will exactly in the reverse order of
closing the first cage.

It will be a good practice to weigh the empty cage before
letting the animal in.  This will help to determine the weight
of the animal.  This is important if a sedative is to use for
handling.  Dose of drug is to be computed according to the
weight of the animal.

A captured animal may suffer from shock out of exhaustion
or fright.

Wounds and injuries: This happen either from intraspecific
or interspecific fight or during the procedure of capture.  
Capture mayopathy: This happen when the animals are
chased for a considerable period of time.  This results in
acidosis (lactic acid accumulation in muscles) and muscle
degeneration.
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