Tools of Restrainment

This has to be done very carefully.  There are visual
things, which are not strong, but makes the animal to feel a
physical barrier.  This is used in certain occasions. The
light built funnel like structure in khedda is an example for
this. Opaque plastic sheets are used to drive herd of deer
in a given direction.

1)   Psychological tools

Voice, is an important tool that can be used especially is
an animal escaped from captivity.  The keeper is the best
person to use it.  If he is not confident then better avoid it.  
The animals can “smell” the cold sweat than any body
else.  Some keepers would like to have a “drink” to
purchase confidence.  But this has to be discouraged.  He
may be courageous with out competency, because of
alcohol and end upon in disaster.  

He should be well aware of the anatomy and physiology of
the species to be manipulated.  This will give him an idea
about the limbs that can reach to kick, strike or bite.  He
should be aware of the speed and agility of the animal he
is going to handle.  Many so-called sluggish animals will
turn out to be incredibly agile if provoked or when found
itself in danger.                

The psychology of the animal is also another factor.
Animals in a social group, which are emotionally bound,
may attack if one of its heard mates is handled
(attacked).   Elephant is a typical example.  Another
example is the reaction of mother when the young ones
are handled.   Cow elephant with a calf at foot, tiger with its
cubs are all examples.

The response of an animal to a violation of its flight
distance is important. It may flee or attack with all its
strength and capacity.

Reduction of sensory stimuli

Sight, sound and smell are all sensory stimuli that can
evoke response in an animal.   Once the animal is
confined to an area say a cage it may be covered by large
opaque cover; a tarpaulin can be used.  Control all
visitors.  Similarly a nocturnal bird will be less active in a
broad daylight and vice versa.

Sounds which are not familiar to animal in the wild will also
produce aggressive /defensive reaction from the animal.  
Avoid talking as well as blaring of radios and other similar
things around.


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