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•        Small intestine is a mucous membrane forming
longitudinal and transverse folds in honeycomb patterns.
•        Diaphragmatic face of liver is strongly convex and
the visceral face is deeply concave. The deep umbilical
fissure divides the organ into a larger right and a smaller
left lobe. The right lobe is extensive. The gall bladder is
•        Pancreas is dark brown, lobulated and situated in
the mesoduodenum.

2.        Respiratory system
•        Proboscis is highly mobile, tactile and prehensile
organ. It is made up of two nasal tubes separated by the
septum nasi. The anterior margin of the tip of the
proboscis has the "prehensile finger" which is highly tactile.
•        The parietal pleura are very thick and adherent to
the visceral pleura completely obliterating the pleural
cavity. The parietal pleura are closely attached to the
thoracic wall and are easily separable from the thoracic
wall due to the abundance of the endothoracic facia.

•        The left lung is smaller and extends from the 3rd rib
to the 16th rib. Deep fissures mark the apical, cardiac and
diaphragmatic lobes. The right lung is larger and extends
from the 2nd rib to the 16th rib. Mediastinal lobe is
attached to it.

3.        Cardiovascular system
•        Heart is situated in the middle mediastinum extending
frorm the 1st to the 5th rib with the apex resting on the 4th
interchondral space. It is large, ovoid and longer on the left
•        The apex of the heart in majority of the cases is bifid,
incisura cordis separating the two apices of the ventricles.

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