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Elephant heart is specially designed.  We may think that it
has two hearts, since there are two apices (bifid apex).
In cow elephants, vulva is situated between the hind legs.  
Clitoris is large and may be 15 - 30 cm long but they mate
like all other quadrupeds (four legged animals) mounting
from the back.  The special position of vulva makes the
penis when erect to go up like a cobra hood to facilitate
penetration into the vagina.

Elephants possess two openings on the roof of their mouth
called vomeronasal openings, which act as scent glands
and plays an important role in courting and mating enabling
Flehmen response.

Calf at birth is one metre tall and weighs 1 Quintal.
Mammary glands are situated  between  the forelegs and
there is no teat as in the case of cows.  Elephants have
only nipple, with multiple pores like human beings.

There is no gall bladder in elephants.

Respiration is 10 per minute while standing and 5 per
minute during recumbency.

Vertical posture like in human beings makes them prone to

Total number of bones in an elephant is 282 and vertebrae
number varies from 56-71.

Elephant can stand for long periods.  Horses and passerine
birds have 'check ligament, which help them to stand while
sleeping.  Elephants are provided with such feet that can
be splayed which help them to stand for long periods.  One
elephant belonging to temple at Tripunithara, Kerala, stood
for 18 months when it became sick and was afraid of lying
down because of body weakness.

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