|There is no naso-lachrimal duct and hence secretion runs
out from the inner canthus of the eye over the skin. The
eyes are without lachrymal apparatus and the ones that
are present are Harderian glands.
Elephants spray fluid over the body by sucking secretions
from the stomach. Hence termed as "sweats internally".
However, few sweat glands are present on the skin found
at the base of nails.
There is a pair of temporal glands situated on either side
of the cheek, both in males and females. But in males,
they enlarge and secrete a fluid, which is considered as
an external sign of musth.
Musth is a condition seen in all adult male elephants
during which time they become aggressive and does not
obey the mahout and sometimes kills him. Musth is the
most dangerous thing with captive male elephants. It is
seasonal and appears once in a year. The male animals
turn out to be very aggressive. This is due to very high
levels of androgen present in the body during the period
The teeth have ridges for grinding coarse food and the
number of ridges increases during every sequential
change of teeth. The ridges of African elephant teeth is
lozenge-shaped and hence the name Loxodonta africana.
Normal rectal body temperature of an elephant is 36-370C.
Trunk is formed by the fusion of upper lip and the nose
and possesses circular longitudinal and oblique muscles.
Chromosome number is 56. Pulse 25 - 30 per minute while
standing and 72-98 per minute in lateral recumbency.
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